By Gibson Ferguson
This wide-ranging creation unearths the significance of language coverage in terms of migration, globalization, cultural variety, nation-building, schooling, and ethnic identification all through numerous international locations and continents.
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Extra info for Language Planning and Education (Edinburgh Textbooks in Applied Linguistics)
One of the most remarkable cases of language intervention, however, and one where there is a clear fusion of purism and nationalism, was the Turkish language reform, initiated in the 1930s. The political context of the reform – essential to understanding its motivation – was the emergence in 1923 of a new Turkish republic from the debris of the old Ottoman empire. Its first president and founding father, Kemal Atatürk (1881– 1938), was determined to forge a new national identity that was distinctively Turkish, secular and modern, and to this end introduced a whole battery of social, legal and cultural reforms.
Status planning addresses the functions of language(s) in society, and typically involves the allocation of languages to official roles in different domains – government and education, for instance. Inevitably, these allocative decisions enhance, or detract from, the status of these languages – hence status planning. Corpus planning, by 789 02 pages 001-226 REVISED 31/1/06 11:47 Page 21 The practice of language planning 21 contrast, addresses language form, the code itself, and seeks to engineer changes in that code, central among which, as summarised by Ferguson (1968), are graphisation (the development of writing systems), standardisation and modernisation.
Contrasting with English, and now – thanks to the seminal writings of Haugen (1966a) – a regular textbook example of LP, is the case of the development of standard Norwegian. This differs from English both in its chronology – the standardisation of a distinct Norwegian only commencing in the nineteenth century following independence from Denmark in 1814 – and in its very clear exemplification of the influence of nationalism and romanticism in the standardisation process. 3 Such a situation, however, was profoundly uncongenial to contemporary nationalist and Romantic notions of the nation, which emphasised, as we have seen, the importance of a distinctive language as a significant, even defining, element of a unique national identity.
Language Planning and Education (Edinburgh Textbooks in Applied Linguistics) by Gibson Ferguson