By G. Hauke
This e-book provides the principles of fluid mechanics and delivery phenomena in a concise manner. it really is appropriate as an advent to the topic because it includes many examples, proposed difficulties and a bankruptcy for self-evaluation.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena (Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications)
11). Now we can proceed to deﬁning the volumetric and mass ﬂux. 7 (Volumetric ﬂow rate). The volumetric ﬂow rate Q is the volume of ﬂuid that crosses the surface per unit time, v · n dS Q= S Its dimensions are [Q] = L3 T−1 and its units in the SI, m3 /s. 5 The Concept of Flux 27 n Fig. 11. Exterior normal to the surface of a volume. 8 (Mass ﬂow rate). 24) S Its dimensions are [m] ˙ = MT−1 and its SI units, kg/s. n θ dA n v v S Fig. 12. Flux across a surface. 23), let us take the diﬀerential of area dA over the surface S of Fig.
At the same time as the wind blows the fallen tree leaves, it transports all the ﬂuid properties, such as temperature, chemical concentration of the chemical species, energy, momentum and so on. In short, this transport phenomenon is caused by ﬂuid velocity. The second class of transport phenomena is due to diﬀusion transport or molecular transport, and it will be explained in more detail in Chapter 7 on Constitutive Equations. Mathematically, for the case of constant coeﬃcients, the net local balance of transport by diﬀusion around a ﬂuid particle is proportional to the diﬀusion coeﬃcient α and the Laplacian, α∆c = α ∂2c ∂2c ∂2c + 2+ 2 2 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 20 2 Elementary Fluid Kinematics and it contains second derivatives.
Find the volumetric ﬂow rate per unit width at any value of x. 9. Film condensation on a vertical plate. 10 Write the expression of the kinetic energy ﬂux across a surface S. 3 Fluid Forces The intensity of transport processes crucially depends on ﬂuid motion. This is one of the salient features of transport phenomena in ﬂuids. And since the ﬂuid motion is impelled by the forces applied to the ﬂuid, these ﬂuid forces are of paramount importance in determination of the mentioned processes. Therefore, this chapter introduces the main forces that for engineering purposes act upon a ﬂuid, namely, body forces, surface forces and surface tension.
An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena (Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications) by G. Hauke