By Guangyou Yang, Xiaofei Liu (auth.), David Jin, Sally Lin (eds.)

ISBN-10: 3642286577

ISBN-13: 9783642286575

ISBN-10: 3642286585

ISBN-13: 9783642286582

ECWAC2012 is an built-in convention dedicated to digital trade, net software and communique. within the this court cases you will discover the rigorously reviewed clinical final result of the second one overseas convention on digital trade, internet program and communique **(****ECWAC 2012****)** held at **March 17-18,2012 ** in Wuhan, China, bringing jointly researchers from all over the international within the field.

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**Extra resources for Advances in Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication: Volume 2**

**Example text**

Liang θ = ⎡⎣b1 ,… , bR , c11 ,… c1n ,… , c1R ,… cnR , σ 11 ,…σ n1 ,… , σ 1R ,…σ nR ⎤⎦ T (1) Figure 2 presents how to construct the rule-base for the fuzzy estimator by choosing θ . 1. , n where the parameter σ 0 > 0 , S Nj denote the N-th state-tuple, the j-th input universe of discourse and Z N is the N-th action-tuple of single value Ax , or Ay , Vx , Vy . ε f = ε 0 , where ε 0 characterize the accuracy with which we want the fuzzy system to approximate the output. 2. , n , computing the current estimated fuzzy output using equation (2) ⎛ 1 ⎛ S N − ci ⎞2 ⎞ ∑ i =1 bi ∏ j =1 exp ⎜⎜ − 2 ⎜⎜ j σ i j ⎟⎟ ⎟⎟ j ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ f (S N |θ ) = N i ⎛ 1 ⎛ S − c ⎞2 ⎞ n R exp ∑ i =1 ∏ j =1 ⎜⎜ − 2 ⎜⎜ j σ i j ⎟⎟ ⎟⎟ j ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ n R (2) If f ( S N | θ ) − Z N < ε f , return to step 2.

Let θ denote all the above parameters, where the dimensions of θ are determined by the number of inputs n and the number of rules R in the rule-base. The parameter vector θ to be chosen is 32 M. Li, S. Li, and J. Liang θ = ⎡⎣b1 ,… , bR , c11 ,… c1n ,… , c1R ,… cnR , σ 11 ,…σ n1 ,… , σ 1R ,…σ nR ⎤⎦ T (1) Figure 2 presents how to construct the rule-base for the fuzzy estimator by choosing θ . 1. , n where the parameter σ 0 > 0 , S Nj denote the N-th state-tuple, the j-th input universe of discourse and Z N is the N-th action-tuple of single value Ax , or Ay , Vx , Vy .

For example, Allen and Thrasher 1 considered vaccination strategies in age-dependent populations in the case of g 0. Pollard 2 studied the effects of adding stochastic terms to discretetime age-dependent models that employ Leslie matrices. In this paper, we will develop an numerical approximation method for stochastic age-dependent population equation of the type described by Eqs. 5 . e demonstrate that the Euler approximate solution will converge to the true solution if both remain within a bounded set.

### Advances in Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication: Volume 2 by Guangyou Yang, Xiaofei Liu (auth.), David Jin, Sally Lin (eds.)

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