By Kash L. Mittal
This publication chronicles the complaints of the 1st foreign Symposium on Adhesion elements of skinny motion pictures held less than the auspices of MST meetings in Newark, New Jersey, October 28-29, 1999.
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This is in good agreement with the experimentally measured saturation in compressive stress. For post-deposition ion irradiation at high energies and to high doses, the selfinterstitials may form clusters or even collapse into interstitial loops . These loops preferentially align normal to the tensile stress direction  to relax the tensile stress and continued growth in the size of the loops will eventually lead to the development of compressive stress [29, 301. The compressive stress buildup in these high energy ion-irradiated films has been shown to be proportional to (dpa)*I3 where dpa is displacements per atom [29, 301.
According to this model, the energy and the flux of the energetic Figure 10. Layout of the RF sputtering process. S. Scaglione et a1 46 particles bombarding the growing film determine the nature and the magnitude of the stress. Since Hoffmann and Thornton studies, a number of researchers have shown that the results obtained for magnetron sputtered thin films are generic to any PVD process involving super-thermal particles striking the film . In PVD processes the residual stress and microstructure properties of thin films are strongly affected by bombardment with energetic particles during the growth process.
B 59, 8541 (1999). 3. J. Y. Robic, H. Leplan, Y. Pauleau and B. Rafin, Thin Solid Films 290-291, 34 (1996). 4. S. Kumar, P. N. Dixit, D. Sarangi and R. Bhattacharyya, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3866 (1999). 5. S . J. Bull, A. M. Jones and A. R. McCabe, Surf: Coat. Technol. 54/55, 173 (1992). 6. P. J. Martin and R. P. Netterfield, Thin Solid Films 199, 351-358 (1991). 7. S . Scaglione, D. Flori and G. Emiliani, Appl. S u r j k e Sci. 43. 224-227 (1989). 8. D. J. Kester and R. Messier, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 504 (1992).
Adhesion Aspects of Thin Films by Kash L. Mittal