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By A Martinet

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Function being, in such a hypothetical case, diluted in lexical meaning, would, of course, cease to exist as such. We are thus induced to accept, at least as a pragmatic assumption, the view that there exists in all languages some distinction between monemes as regards the extent to which they may assume the various existing functions. In no language are all monemes used indiscriminately as functionendowed and function-marking. In other words, there is no language without grammar. But once unambiguous functionmarking is secured, there is no universally valid reason why any moneme, except one that is specifically a functionmarker, should be excluded from any function, whether predicative or non-predicative, Still, specialization is very widespread.

The intricacies of Latin are no proof that the distinction between functionals and modifiers is not fundamental, Concord is redundancy, and contrary to what could be expected, redundancy results, as a rule, from least effort: people do not mind repeating if mental effort is thereby reduced; if adjectives are quite freely and frequently used as nouns, as was the case in older Indo-European languages, it will be indispensable for them to carry the mark of their function if nouns do; therefore a word likefortis, 'courageous' or 'courageous fellow' is inflected just like civis, 'citizen'.

39-6 7; iv (1931), pp. 96-116. 3 Cf. W. S. Allen, 'Structure and System of the Abaza Verbal Complex', TPS, 1956, p. 129. 4 Cf. A. Haudricourt, 'Richesse en phonemes et richesse en locuteurs', L'Homme, i (1961), PP' 5-10. I 2 I Cf. R. Jakobson, C. Fant, and :LVI:. , 1952 ) , pp. 33-34. e, [cvccvccvc] or [ccvccvcvc]. > could be dubbed a heavycluster language, Modern French and Classical Hebrew would be 'shwa' languages, and so forth. g. e . veeeev) would we have to count in French before we label it a heavy-cluster language?

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A Functional View of Language by A Martinet


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